What is Router? – A Router is special type of computer . It has same basic components as a standard desktop PC.
However, routers are designed, to perform some very specific functions. just a computer need operating system to run software application, routers needs the Internetwork Operating system software (IOS) to run configuration file.
The Router Look Like Below
Functions of Router
Routers operate primarily at the third layer – the network layer – of the OSI model, which has a core responsibility to move packets across the network using the most appropriate paths . Routers are devices that route packets from network to network.
For networks such as the internet, routers are a necessity. The internet is made up of many interconnected routers that route messages/data from one network to the next.
The networks involved do not have to be the same. Routers – used with the IP protocol – can be used to connect geographically dispersed parts of a network that use different technologies other than Ethernet, such as leased line, Frame Relay, or Multiprotocol Label Switching.
The IP protocol is an internet protocol that operates at the third OSI layer. Like a router, a bridge connects separate networks. Bridges ensure the transfer of data from one small network to the next – networks that were created from the splitting of a large network into smaller, separate networks to reduce network load or to enhance data security. Bridges work primarily at the data link layer.
Routers are different from switches and bridges, which transfer data to the port or device the data is intended for. Routers typically determine/calculate the path data should take.
Switches do not use logic to determine paths. A switch collects information on addresses so it will know where to send a message/data. Switches also connect networking devices physically together and are therefore at the physical layer of the OSI model.
On packet-switched networks, each message or data to be transmitted is cut up into segments/packets for transmission. Each packet travels individually to the common destination; the route of each may be different. The router determines the path/route of a packet – it makes decisions about the best path for packets to get from one network to the next. When a router receives a packet, it looks up source and destination addresses to determine the path.
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