What Is Programming Concepts?

What is Programming?

What Is Programming Concepts? – it Is the sequence of intructions in which the problems computer tasks and steps are performed with the help of computer. A Person Writes or Perform A Program is Called as Programmer. Programmer Uses Some Specific Language to Write A Program Which Is Called As Programming Language. Like C, C++ , Java & Python.

Programming Language

It Is a set of keywords, symbols and a system of rules for constructing statements by which humans can communicate instructions to be executed by a computer.

What Is Programming Concepts?

Programming Language are mainly categorized into three parts which are as follows:

  1. Low Level Language
  2. Medium Level Language
  3. High Level Language

1 Low Level Language

These Programming Language are more arcane and difficult to understand. It is designed to operate and handle the entire instruction set of a computer system directly which are generally used to write the system software. E.g Machine Language and Assembly Language.

Machine Language

It Is the only language understood by the computers. Sometimes, it referred to as machine code or object code or binary language. It is a collection of binary digits (0 and 1) or bits that the computer reads and interprets.

Assembly Language

It Is a low level programming language which is used as an interface with computer hardwares. it uses structed commands as substitions for numbers, allowing humans to read the code easier than looking at binary codes.

What Is Programming Concepts?

2 Medium Level Language

It Serves as the bridge between raw hardware and programming layer of a computer system. It is designed to improve the translated code before it is executed by the processor. C Language is called as medium level language.

What Is Programming Concepts?

3 High Level Language

It is an advanced computer programming language that is not limited that is not limited to one computer, designed for a specific jobs and is easier to understand. The main advantage of high level language over low level language is that they are easier to read. Write and understand. Eg. Basic, C , FORTRAN, Java, Pascal etc.

LanguageYearDeveloperApplication AreaNature
FORTRAN (Formula Translation)1957IBMCalculationComplied
ALGOL (Algorithmic Language)1958Europeans And American ScientistScientif-PurposeComplied
LISP (List Processing)1958John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( MIT )Artificial-IntelligenceComplied and Interpreted
COBOL ( Common Business Oriented Language)1959Grace HopperBusiness Management and String OrientedComplied
BASIC (Begineer’s All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)1964John G. Kemeny And Thomas E. Kurtz at Dartmouth College in New HampshireProgramming For Educaional PurposeInterpreted
Pascal1970Niklaus WirthEducationComplied
C1972Dennis Ritchie at Bell LabsSystem ProgrammingComplied
C++1983Bjarne Strousstrap at Bell LabsSytem object ProgrammingComplied
Python1990Guido van RossumML,AI, Data Scientist& RoboticsComplied And Interpreted
R Programming1993Ross IhakaData ScientistComplied
Java1995James Gosling at Sun MicrosystemsInternet oriented LanguageComplied and Interpreted

Language Translater

It Helps in converting programming languages to machine language.

The Translated program is called the object code Depending upon used programming languages, Language Translator are divided into three categories which as follows:-

  • Assembler
  • Interpreter
  • Complier

Assembler

It Converts a program written in assembly language into machine language. Assembly language consist of mnemonic codes, which are difficult to learn and are machine dependent.

Some basic funtions of an assembler are as follows:-

  1. Replace mnemonic code by machine codes
  2. Replaces sysmbolic addresses by numeric addresses
  3. Determines machine representation for constants.

Interpreter

It converts a HLL-Program into machine language by converting it line-by-line. if there is any error in any line, it stops the execution of the program immediately and reports the user at the same time and program execution cannot resume until the error is rectified by the user. Interpreter is very useful for debugging and suitable for novice programmer. This is a slow process and consumes less memory place.

What Is Programming Concepts?

Complier

It converts HLL Program into machine language, which can be understood by the processor. for each high level language, the machine requires a separate complier. A complier creates a unique object program, I.e if a source program is complied, there is no need of that source program because output can be obtained by executing that object program (copy created by the compliation of source code). Complier converts the entire HLL program in one go and reports all the errors of the program alongwidth the line numbers.

What Is Programming Concepts?

Algorithm

It is an effectie method that can be expressed within a finite amount of space and time and in a well-defined formal language for calculating a function.

The desirable features of an algorithm are:-

  1. Each step of algorithm should be simple.
  2. It Must and in a finite number of steps.
  3. it should be as efficient as possible.
  4. it should be unambiguous in the sense that the logic should be crisp and clear.
  5. it should be effective i.e it must lead to a unique solution of the problem.

FlowChart

it is a type of diagram that represents an algorithm work flow or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting them with arrows. FlowChart are used in analysing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields.

The Two Most Common types of boxes in a flowchart are:-

  • A Processing step, usually called activity and denoted as a rectangular box.
  • A decision, usually denoted as a diamond.

Some Tips

Pseudocode – it is not a programming language, but simply an informal way of describing a program. it does not follow syntax strictly.

Control Structure : – it is a statement or block of statements in a programming language that determined the control flow or sequence of execution of other instructions or statements.

Looping ; – It is a control structure which is used in a program to execute a particular set of statements repeatedly.

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