What Is Enumeration Pentesting? – Enumeration Pentesting describes the importance of enumeration pen testing, the framework of pen testing steps, and the tools used to conduct pen testing.
What Is Enumeration?
Enumeration is the process of extracting usernames, machine names, network resources, shares, and services from a system or network. In the enumeration phase, attacker creates active connections with system and performs directed queries to gain more information about the target.
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What Is Enumeration Pentesting?
Through enumeration, an attacker may gather sensitive information on organizations with weak security. that sensitive information can be used to hack and break into the organization’s network, potentially resulting in huge loss in terms of information, service, or finance.
To Prevent these kinds of attacks, every organization must test its own security. Enumeration pentesting builds on the data collected in the reconnaissance phase. it is used of identify valid user accounts or poorly protected resource share using active connections to systems and directed queries.
A pentester should conduct pen tests against various enumeration techniques in order to check if the target network is revealing any sensitive information that may help an attacker in performing an attack. this may reveal sensitive information such as user accounts, IP address, email contacts, DNS, network resources and shares, application information, etc.
The pentester should try to discover as much information as possible regarding the target. This helps to determine the vulnerabilities/weakness in the target organization’s security.
A pen tester should perform all possible enumeration techniques to enumerate as much information as possible about the target. To ensure the full scope of the test, enumeration pen testing includes a series of steps to provide information.
Step 1: Find the network range
Find the network range using tools such as Whois Lookup. Finding network range helps in enumerating important servers in the target network.
Step 2: Calculate the Subnet Mask
Calculate the subnet mask required for the IP range using tools such as Subnet Mask Calculator. The Calculated subnet Mask can serve as an input to many of the ping sweep and port scanning tools for further enumeration, which includes discovering hosts and open ports.
Step 3: Undergo Host Discovery
Find the important servers connected to the internet using tools such as Nmap. Use the Nmap syntax to find the servers connected to internet is as Follows:
nmap -sP <network-range>
In place of the network range, enter the network range value obtained in the first step.
Step 4: Perform Port Scanning
Find any open ports and close them if they are not required. Open ports are doorways for an attacker to break into a target’s security perimeter. Therefore, perform port scanning to check for the open ports on the nodes. Pen testers and security auditors use tools such as Nmap to perform port scanning.
Step 5: Perform NetBIOS Enumeration
Perform NetBIOS enumeration to identify the network devices over TCP/IP and to obtain a list of computers that belong to a domain, a list of shares on individual hosts, and policies and passwords. Tools such as Hyena, Nsauditor Network Security Auditor, and NetScanTools Pro can perform NetBIOS Enumeration.
Step 6: Perform SNMP Enumeration
Perform SNMP Enumeration by querying the SNMP server in the network. The SNMP server may reveal information about user accounts and devices. Tools such as OpUtils Network Monitoring Toolset and Engineer’s Toolset can perform SNMP enumeration.
Step 7: Perform LDAP Enumeration
Perform LDAP enumeration by querying the LDAP service. Enumerating LDAP service provides valid user names, departmental details, and address details. An attacker can use this information to perform social engineering and other kinds of attacks. Tools such as Softerra LDAP Administrator can perform LDAP Enumeration.
Step 8: Perform NTP Enumeration
Perform NTP enumeration to extract information such as the host connected to an NTP server, client IP Address, OS running on client systems, etc. Commands such as ntptrace, ntpdc and ntpq Can Obtain this information.
Step 9: Perform SMTP Enumeration
Perform SMTP Enumeration to determine valid users on the SMTP server. Tools such as NetScanTools Pro can query the SMTP server for this information.
Step 10: Perform DNS Enumeration
Perform DNS Enumeration to locate all the DNS servers and their records. The DNS servers provide information such as system names, usernames, IP addresses, etc. The Windows utility nslookup can extract this information.
Step 11: Perform IPsec, VoIP, VPN and Linux Enumeration
Perform IPsec enumeration to extract information about encryption and hashing algorithm, authentication type, key distribution algorithm, SA LifeDuration, etc. Tools such as ike-scan and Nmap can extract this information.
Perform VoIP enumeration to extract information about VoIP gateways/servers, IP-PBX systems, client software (softphones) /VoIP phones User-Agent IP Addresses and user extensions, etc. Use tool such as Svmap and Metasploit to collect this information.
Perform RPC enumeration to identify any vulnerable Services on the RPC service ports. Use tools such as Nmap and NetScan Tools Pro to extract this information.
Perform Unix/Linux user enumeration to extract information about system users. Commands such as rusers, rwho and finger can obtain this information.
Step 12: Document All the Findings
The last step is to document all the findings obtained during the enumeration pen testing. Analyze the results and suggest countermeasures for the client to improve their security.
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