What is VLANs?

What is VLANs? – A virtual LAN (VLAN) is any broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated in a computer network at the data link layer (OSI layer 2).LAN is the abbreviation for local area network and in this context virtual refers to a physical object recreated and altered by additional logic. VLANs work by applying tags to network frames and handling these tags in networking systems – creating the appearance and functionality of network traffic that is physically on a single network but acts as if it is split…

Read More

What is Internet?

The Internet has gained popularity and emerged as an important and efficient means of commuication. The idea of introducing the Internet was to allow millions of people to share information and ideas, sounds, video clips using their computers across the world. The Internet is a world wide network of networked computers those are able to exchange information with each other. It consist of thousands of separately administered network of various sizes and types. What is Internet? Internet Stands for International Network, which began in 1950’s by Vint Cerf known as…

Read More

What Is Address Resolution Protocol?

What is ARP? – Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a TCP/IP protocol that maps IP network addresses to the addresses (hardware addresses) used by a data link protocol. It operates as the interface between the OSI network layer and OSI Data link layer and is located below the network layer. An Ethernet network makes use of two hardware addresses that find the source and destination of each frame that Ethernet sends. The destination address can identify a broadcast packet, which will be sent to all connected computers. The hardware address…

Read More

What Are The Network Attack And Defenses

Network Attack :- Network Attack the various ways attackers try to exploit a computing device were discussed. These included physical attacks, zero-days, unpatched software, social engineering, password issues, eavesdropping/man-in-the-middle attacks, data leaks, misconfiguration, denial-of-service, user errors ,and malware. All of these attacks can be accomplished on either the computing device itself or the network connecting to the computing device. Types of Network Attack Network attacks can be anywhere along the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.The OSI model is a very commonly known and used construct showing the different layers of…

Read More

How To Spoof IP Address?

IP Spoofing refers to changing source IP Adresses so that the attack appears to be come from someone else. When the victim replies to the address, it goes back to the spoofed address and not to the attacker’s real address. IP Spoofing using Hping2: Hping2 www.example.com -a xx.xx.xx.xx “You will not be able to complete the three-way handshake and open a successful TCP Connection with spoofed IP Address”. IP Spoofing Detection Techniques : Direct TTL Probes Send Packet to host of suspect spoofed packet that triggers reply and compare TTL…

Read More

What Is Wireshark?

Wireshark, as discussed earlier, is the most popular packet analyzer, and there is a reason behind its huge fan following. It hosts tons of features, supports a huge list of common and uncommon protocols with an easy-to-navigate GUI, and can be easily installed and used on popular operating systems, such as Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X for absolutely no cost at all. Wireshark can be downloaded and installed from the official website ( http://www.wireshark.org ). The installation setup is comparatively simple, and within a few clicks, you will be…

Read More

What is TLS?

Transport Layer Security(TLS) is a protocol used to establish a secure connection between a client and a server and ensure privacy and integrity of information during transmission. It uses symmetric key for bulk Encryption, asymmetric key for authentication and key exchange, and message authentication codes for message integrity. It uses the RSA algorithm with 1024-bit and 2048-bit strengths. with the help of TLS, one can reduce security risks such as message tampering, message forgery, and message interception. An advantage of TLS is that it is application-protocol independent. Higher-level protocols can…

Read More

What is SSL ?

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is an application layer protocol developed by Netscape for managing the security of a message transmission on the Internet. It is a protocol used to provide a secure authentication mechanism between two communicating applications, such as a client and a server. The SSL requires a reliable transport protocol, such as TCP, for data transmission and reception. It use RSA asymmetric (public key) Encryption to encrypt data transferred over SSL connections. Any application-layer protocol that is higher than SSL, such as HTTP,…

Read More

Port Scanning

Port Scanning is the name for the technique used to identify open ports and services available on a network host. It is sometimes utilized by security technicians to audit computers for vulnerabilities, however, it is also used by hackers to target victims. It can be used to send requests to connect to the targeted computers, and then keep track of the ports which appear to be opened, or those that respond to the request. TCP Connect / Full Open Scan TCP Connect scan detects when a port is open by…

Read More

What is Nmap?

What is Nmap?

Nmap tool (“Network Mapper”) is a free and open source utility for network discovery and security auditing. Many systems and network administrators also find it useful for tasks such as network inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime. Nmap tool uses raw IP packets in novel ways to determine what hosts are available on the network, what services (application name and version) those hosts are offering, what operating systems (and OS versions) they are running, what type of packet filters/firewalls are in use, and dozens of…

Read More