What Is NTP?

What Is NTP? – NTP stands for Network Time Protocol. It is an Internet standard protocol (built on top of TCP/IP) that is used to synchronize the clocks of client computers. NTP sends time requests to known servers and obtains server time stamps. Using those stamps, it adjusts the client’s time. What Is NTP? The following are some of the features of NTP:• It is fault tolerant and dynamically autoconfiguring.• It synchronizes accuracy up to one millisecond.• It can be used to synchronize all computers in a network.• It uses…

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What Is a Cryptocurrency?

What is Cryptocurrency?

What Is a Cryptocurrency? – Over the past few years, the term cryptocurrency has become a well-used term in financial circles, new business plans, and news headlines. Often the term is associated with criminal activity on the so called “dark web,” but more recently with the increasing value of currencies like Bitcoin, the word, concept, and products are entering mainstream consciousness. But what really is a cryptocurrency and how does it work? In this chapter, we will examine the concept, the history, and the uses for cryptocurrencies and look at…

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Bright Spots On The Darknet

Bright Spot On The Darknet

Bright Spots On The Darknet – The darknet is not all creepy, prohibited content. There is definitely no Lack of criminal malware or forums marketplaces under the surface net, but there is also a few valid sites and communities. To be clear, the darknet Remains, well, dangerous and dark. You should not simply download a Tor browser and go digging for hazard intelligence. Not everybody who heads under the surface net, however, is hoping to purchase stolen passwords or lease a botnet for hire. Some Tor consumers are just hoping…

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DoS Attack Classification

Dos Attack

DoS Attack Classification – There are two main kinds of attacks: denial-of-service attacks and distributed denial-of-service attacks. In distributed denial-of-service attacks, multiple compromised systems are coordinated in an attack against one target. DoS Attack Classification There are different ways to carry out denial-of-service attacks. Although there are many exploits used by attackers, the basic objectives remain the same: bandwidth consumption, network connectivity, or the destruction of configuration information. The following are representative types of denial-of-service attacks: • Smurf• Buffer overflow attack• Ping of death• Teardrop• SYN flood DoS Attack Classification…

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Hacker Code of Ethics?

Hacker Code of Ethics?

Hacker Code of Ethics? – if you do an Internet search for “hacker ethics,” you are more likely to find a glamorized version of so-called “hacker rules” that embrace the idea that hackers can do anything they want, even perhaps without limits, in the pursuit of whatever they want. Best-selling author Steven Levy’s 1984 book, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (https://www.amazon.com/Hackers-Computer-Revolution-Steven-Levy/dp/1449388396/ ), introduced the world to one of the earliest versions of hacker ethics ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_ethic ). In a nutshell, almost word for word, it said the following: 1.…

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The Different Forms of Penetration Tests

What is Penetration Testing?

The Different Forms of Penetration Tests – The form of penetration test that you’ll conduct depends on the needs of your client. In this part of the book, you’ll learn about the different kinds of “pen tests”. The Different Forms of Penetration Tests Black Box Tests In a black box test, you don’t have any information regarding your target. Your first task is to research about your client’s network. Your client will define the results they need, but they won’t give you other pieces of data. The Advantages Black box…

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Social Engineering Threats and Defenses

What is Social Engineering?

Social Engineering Threats and Defenses – To carry out attacks on any organization, social engineers need to exploit employee behavior (manners, enthusiasm toward work, laziness, innocence, etc.). Social engineering attacks are difficult to guard against, as the victim might not be aware that he or she has been duped. They are very much similar to other kind of attacks to extract a company’s money, information, or IT resources. Social Engineering Threats and Defenses To guard against social engineering attacks, a company needs to evaluate the kinds of attacks, estimate the…

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Stack Operations and Function Invocation

Stack Operations and Function Invocation – The stack is a fundamental data structure in programming languages and operating systems. For example, local variables in C are stored on the functions’ stack space. When the operating system transitions from ring 3 to ring 0, it saves state information on the stack. Conceptually, a stack is a last-in first-out data structure supporting two operations: push and pop. Push means to put something on top of the stack; pop means to remove an item from the top. Concretely speaking, on x86, a stack…

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