What is Key Server in Cryptography?

What is Key Server in Cryptography? – At last we turn to key management. This is, without a doubt, the most difficult issue in cryptographic systems, which is why we left it to near the end. We’ve discussed how to encrypt and authenticate data, and how to negotiate a shared secret key between two participants. Now we need to find a way for Alice and Bob to recognize each other over the Internet. As you will see, this gets very complex very quickly. Key management is especially difficult because it…

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What is Message Authentication Codes?

What is Message Authentication Codes? – A message authentication code, or MAC, is a construction that detects tampering with messages. Encryption prevents Eve from reading the messages but does not prevent her from manipulating the messages. This is where the MAC comes in. Like encryption, MACs use a secret key, K, known to both Alice and Bob but not to Eve. Alice sends not just the message m, but also a MAC value computed by a MAC function. Bob checks that the MAC value of the message received equals the…

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Vulnerability Scanning

Vulnerability Scanning – Vulnerability discovery is an integral part of any security assessment. While we prefer manual, specialized tasks that leverage our knowledge and experience during a security audit, automated vulnerability scanners are nonetheless invaluable when used in proper context. In this module, we will provide an overview of automated vulnerability scanning, discuss its various considerations, and focus on both Nessus and Nmap as indispensable tools. Vulnerability Scanning How Vulnerability Scanners Work Vulnerability scanner implementations vary, but generally follow a standard workflow. Most automated scanners will: Detect if a target…

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Prevention DoS/DDoS Attacks

Prevention DoS/DDoS Attacks – Distributed attack tools leverage bandwidth from multiple systems on diverse networks to produce potent denial-of-service attacks. To a victim, an attack may appear from different source addresses, whether or not the attacker employs IP source address spoofing. Responding to a distributed attack requires a high degree of communication among Internet sites. Prevention is not straightforward because of the interdependency of site security on the Internet; the tools are typically installed on compromised systems that are outside of the administrative control of future denial-of-service attack targets. Prevention…

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How WPA Works

How WPA Works – WPA, or Wi-Fi Protected Access, was developed as “WEP’s replacement.” There are two versions of Wi-Fi Protected Access: WPA and WPA2. The original WPA standard was intended as a temporary replacement for WEP while the 802.11i (WPA2) standard was being developed. Because of the way WPA works, it was able to run on most existing wireless cards and access points through a simple firmware update. The technology that allows WPA to work on existing hardware is TKIP, the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol. We won’t go too…

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Types Of Phishing Attacks

Types Of Phishing Attack – Phishing is an Internet scam where the user is convinced to divulge personal and confidential information. Phishers trick users with offers of money or other inducements in order to get users to give them personal information. The main purpose of phishing is to get access to the customer’s bank accounts, passwords, and other security information. Types Of Phishing Attack Man-In-The-Middle Attacks In this attack, the attacker’s computer is placed between the customer’s computer and the real Web site. This helps the attacker track communications between…

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What Is DarkNet?

What Is DarkNet? – The secret world of the Darknet isn’t entered via any gate, but throughout the TOR: TOR stands for “The Onion Router”. The term “onion” identifies the layers that have to be penetrated from the information, unlike ordinary browsing, the pc doesn’t connect directly to the server where the site is situated. Rather, a complete chain of servers take part with the link so as to produce the best possible anonymity. What Is DarkNet? The first Coating: Entry-Point The entrance Stage (Server 1) to the TOR system…

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What is VLANs?

What is VLANs? – A virtual LAN (VLAN) is any broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated in a computer network at the data link layer (OSI layer 2).LAN is the abbreviation for local area network and in this context virtual refers to a physical object recreated and altered by additional logic. VLANs work by applying tags to network frames and handling these tags in networking systems – creating the appearance and functionality of network traffic that is physically on a single network but acts as if it is split…

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