Open Redirection

Open Redirection

According to the Open Web Application Security Project, an open redirection occurs when an application takes a parameter and redirects a user to that parameter value without any conducting any validation on the value. This vulnerability is used in phishing attacks to get users to visit malicious sites without realizing it, abusing the trust of a given domain to lead users to another. The malicious website serving as the redirect destination could be prepared to look like a legitimate site and try to collect personal / sensitive information. Check out…

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Cross-Site Request Forgery

Cross-Site Request Forgery

A Cross-Site Request Forgery, or CSRF, attack occurs when a malicious website, email, instant message, application, etc. causes a user’s web browser to perform some action on another website where that user is already authenticated, or logged in. Often this occurs without the user knowing the action has occurred. A successful CSRF exploit can compromise end user data and operation, when it targets a normal user. If the targeted end user is the administrator account, a CSRF attack can compromise the entire web application. The impact of a CSRF attack…

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CRLF Injection

CRLF Injection

What is CRLF? When a browser sends a request to a web server, the web server answers back with a response containing both the HTTP headers and the actual website content. The HTTP headers and the HTML response (the website content) are separated by a specific combination of special characters, namely a carriage return and a line feed. They are also known as CRLF. The server knows when a new header begins and another one ends with CRLF, which can also tell a web application or user that a new…

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HTTP Parameter Pollution

HTTP Parameter Pollution

HTTP Parameter Pollution, or HPP, occurs when a website accepts input from a user and uses it to make an HTTP request to another system without validating that user’s input. This can happen one of two ways, via the server (or back end) and via the client side. On StackExchange, SilverlightFox provides a great example of a HPP server side attack; suppose we have the following website, https://www.example.com/transferMoney.php, which is accessible via a POST method taking the following parameters: amount=1000&fromAccount=12345 When the application processes this request, it makes its own…

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HTML Injection

HTML Injection

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) injection is also sometimes referred to as virtual defacement. This is really an attack made possible by a site allowing a malicious userto inject HTML into its web page(s) by not handling that user’s input properly. In otherwords, an HTML injection vulnerability is caused by receiving HTML, typically via someform input, which is then rendered as-is on the page. This is separate and distinct frominjecting Javascript, VBScript, etc. HTML injection is a type of injection issue that occurs when a user is able to control an…

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Cross Site Scripting

Cross Site Scripting

Cross site scripting, or XSS, involve a website including unintended Javascript code which is subsequently passes on to users who then execute that code via their browsers. A harmless example of this is: This will create the Javascript function alert and create a simple popup with the letters XSS. Now, in previous versions of the book, I recommended you use this example when reporting. That is, until a very successful hacker told me it was a “terrible example”, explaining that often the receiver of a vulnerability report may not understand…

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Network Switch

Network Switch

A Network Switch is a computer networking device that connect devices on a computer network by using packet switching to recieve, process, and forward data to the destination device Network Switch look In Diagram Layer-2 devices build hardware address tables, which at a minimum contain the following: •Hardware addresses for hosts •The port each hardware address is associated with Using this information, Layer-2 devices will make intelligent forwarding decisions based on the frame (or data-link) headers. A frame can then be forwarded out only the appropriate destination port, instead of…

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SQL Injection

SQL Injeciton

SQL Injection Attacks uses SQL websites or web applications. It relies on the strategic injection of malicious code or script into extisting queries. This malicious code is drafted with the intention of revealing or manipulating data that is stored in the tables within the database. SQL Injection is a powerfull and dangerous attack. It identifiers the flaws and vulnerabilities in a website or application. The fundamental concept of SQL injection is to inject commands to reveal sensitive information from the database. Hence. it can result to a high profile attack.…

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Steganography

Steganography

Steganography is basically a technique for hiding sensitive information in an ordinary message to ensure the confidentiality. Hidden information is extracted at the destination by a legitimate receiver. Steganography uses encryption to maintain confidentiality and integrity. Additional, it hides the encrypted data to avoid detection. the goal of using steganography is hiding the information from the third party. An attacker may use this technique to hide information like source codes, plans, any other sensitive information to transfer without being detected. You Also Read This Data Breach Classification of Steganography Steganograph…

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Information Warfare

Information Warfare

Information Warfare is a concept of warfare, to get involved in the warfare of informations to gain the most of information. The term, “Information Warfares” or “Info War” describes the use of information and communication technology (ICT). The major reason of focus of this information war is to get a competitive advantage over the opponent or enemy. The following is the classification of Information Warfare into two classes:- 1, Defensive Information Warfare Defensive Information Warfares term is used to refer to all defensive actions that are taken to defend from…

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